Tag Archives: Arlecchino

Commedia dell'Arte | Ca' Macana

The Arlecchino mask: a motley history

Born in the poor district of Bergamo, the history of this mask is surrounded by mystery: a well-grounded hypothesys claims Michelangelo himself would have created it, by modelling it on the ancient mask of a satyr. In the traits of his mask some see a fool, some a demon: truth is, this mask developed over the centuries, thus shaping a figure as prismatic as the dress he wears.

Climbing the theatrical ladder: the origin of Arlecchino’s mask

Harlequin is a fool and a gullible Mask, a servant which can be compared to those found in the Greek New Comedy and in the Latin Comedy. But unlike slaves in ancient comedies, though, Harlequin does not occasionally give good advice to his master, but rather always end up being beaten because of something he hasn’t done at all.

From the 16th century onwards, anyway, this craven and constantly hungry and penniless Mask starts turning into the greedy and shrewd page of a noblesman, in love with some maidservant and with a tone definitely more lifelike than coarse.

Reading the disguise: some facts about Arlecchino’s mask

The costume itself undergoes a series of changes over the years: at first, his clothes were made of a bizarre mixture of coloured pieces of cloth, that is the only rags he could afford. Later, his new close-fitting one-colour suit starts being covered with red, blue, green and yellow lozenges. Moreover, he wears a hat, in whose band a hare’s or rabbit’s tail is placed, and a stick, the so-called batocio, which is used as his nickname, as well: Arlechin Batocio.

SAND_Maurice_Masques_et_bouffons

But Harlequin’s mask has an interesting story, too: originally made of waxed cardboard and hiding the whole face, it then became a half-face leather mask. Over the thin fissures of the eyes, the arches of the eyebrows are extremely prominent, thus giving the character a questioning look. Others see some demoniac features in this expression: a piece of evidence for such a theory is provided by Dante Alighieri.

One of the demons in the XXIst, XXIInd and XXIIIrd cantos of Dante’s Inferno is, indeed, called Alichino. The name itself seems to be related to the Old French word for “ghost”, i.e. hellequin, which, in turn, comes from the Germanic root for “hell”. Starting from Dante’s Inferno, this demon would therefore develop into a comic character.

Carlo Goldoni | Ca'Macana

The master of theatre in Venice: Carlo Goldoni

He lived during the golden age of masks in Venice, but well embodies their decline. He became a first-rank playwright, by creating a turning point in the Commedia dell’Arte. He is a milestone for Italian literature and a symbol for the end of the age of masks in Venice. This is the story of Carlo Goldoni’s new idea of theatre.

From Masks to Actors: Goldoni’s reform

Especially during the 17th century, Venice’s theatrical tradition was blooming: this was related to the economical crisis trade and markets were facing, too, which led to investments in other businesses, such as printing and theatre. By the 18th century, anyway, the quality of theatre shows was poor, since actors constantly repeated the same sketches. The Commedia dell’Arte is, indeed, chiefly based on drafts – the so-called canovacci – and ad-libbing actors.

Carlo Goldoni (Venice, 1707 – Paris, 1793), however, manages to improve this quality, by drawing real characters instead of Masks. It is to Goldoni, then, that we owe a detailed description of the life led by the Venetian middle class, especially in plays such as La locandiera. His first works, though, were still under the scope of the Commedia dell’Arte.

Servant of two Masters: Goldoni and Arlecchino’s mask

In his preface to the comedy The father of a family, Goldoni admits having introduced the character of Harlequin out of courtesy, as one of those sacrifices sometimes Authors are compelled to make. That is, Goldoni has to bend to the will of theatre managers and of the audience. Such a compromise is realised by the comedy A servant of two masters (Il servitore di due padroni), whose main character is Truffaldino (“Swindler”), one of the alternative names of Harlequin. This mask can indeed be considered as the heart-and-soul of the Commedia dell’Arte: as an anti-hero par excellence, Harlequin enjoys more freedom even than the other Masks, since he can do any roguery.

Goldoni is aware of the features of this mask, a catalyst for all the negative aspects of the Old Theatre he strives to wash away: in order to wipe out the “indecent Harlequinades”, as he calls them, he knows he must grant the Author a central role in the planning of a play, by binding characters to a wholly written text.

Goldoni is therefore a reformer of the theatre, although during his life he has to face many an foe, due to the everlasting quarrels with those who supported a traditional idea of theatre. Such a theatre, though, was doomed to vanish, just as the costume of mask-wearing: Goldoni sees it and manages to give a new life to the theatrical world, by turning it into a modern one.